EAPRIL 2012 Conferentie
Op de EAPRIL-conferentie 2012 presenteerde Freda Vasse van FRENETTI de resultaten van haar praktijkgerichte onderzoek over hoe een herontwerp van de werkomgeving bij het VUmc bijdraagt aan effectiever praktijkonderwijs.
De EAPRIL-conferentie vond dit jaar plaats in Finland bij de Jamk University in Jyväskylä (28 t/m 30 november 2012). EAPRIL is de Europese associatie voor praktijkgericht onderzoek gericht op het verbeteren van leren (in het onderwijs en de beroepspraktijk).
Voor geïnteresseerden is de achtergrond van het onderzoek hieronder (in het Engels) opgenomen.
Impact of practical-oriented design-based research on innovation of workplace learning/practical education in nursing
To become a competent nurse, an effective clinical learning environment as a place of learning is essential, both in relation to the perception and the outcomes of nursing education (Levett-Jones & Lathlean, 2008; Barnett, Cross, Shahwan-Akl & Jacob, 2009). Whether there is an effective clinical learning environment depends on the experience the student has gained (Henderson, Forrester & Alison, 2006). Practical research shows that many students have a negative experience while participating in these clinical learning environments at a distance of schools located settings, which results in missed opportunities to learn and which make them gain negative impressions of their potential workplaces (Levett-Jones & Lathlean, 2008; Andrews et al., 2006). As such, a redesign of four out of eighteen clinical workplaces in a learning department took place in a University Medical Centre for enhancement and better utilization of learning and training of nursing students. The starting point of the empirical exploratory study was the holistic approach to learning and the 3 (interaction-/content-/incentive) dimensional learning theory of Illeris (2007). The main question for research was: To what extent is there a difference between a learning department (n=4) and a traditional department (n=14) for students’ and nurses’ workplace learning in relation to individual learning and the guidance approach adopted by nurses? And what explains these differences?
Hypothesis 1: The expectation is that the learning department is a more powerful for students’ workplace learning than a traditional workplace.
Hypothesis 2: The expectation is that the design of a workplace affects the guidance approach adopted by nurses.
Procedure and/or instruments
The following steps were undertaken: First, all stakeholders were involved in discussing and organising the redesign and change of the four workplaces to focus more on learning. The session provides an overview of the changing characteristics. Second, parallel with this process, a construct was created for practice oriented research aiming at (further) enhancement of innovations at the workplace based on the learning theory and -model of Illeris (2007): a 3-Dimensional Workplace Learning Questionnaire (3D-WLQ). The 3D-WLQ contains two parts, for students and nurse preceptors, 11 factors (60/65 items), classified according to the different dimensions of the 3D model of Illeris (2007) to meet the holistic approach of learning. Third, a scientific practical-oriented
research was conducted, i.e. a fixed non-experimental quantitative survey design, along a conceptual model. According to Königs et al (2005) the perspective of the student in the learning environment affects their learning behavior and the quality of learning outcomes. Therefore the learning outcome was not measured in this study but rather students’ perspective. The perspective of nurses was also measured to compare nurses working at the learning department and working at the traditional department with regard to their guidance approach. The entire population of nursing students and nurses in the University Medical Centre was included in the study.
What are the findings and interpretations?
From the perspective of students (n=65) and nurse preceptors (n=123) some significant findings were found between the two different designs of workplaces. The learning department with his own characteristics had a positive effect on students’ learning and on the approach to guidance and training adopted by nurses:
- With regard to the two factors within the content dimension the learning department seemed to be more powerful for students’ workplace learning than a traditional workplace.
- With regard to the five factors within the interaction- and content dimension, it was found that the design of the learning department affected the approach to of guidance by nurses.
The organizational change of the workplace, i.e. the clinical environment, in a learning department did not yet meet all the required and desirable needs. The current findings contribute to the further development, exploration and action of that practice.
Why are the findings relevant for practice and/or policy?
The research outcomes of the innovation in workplace learning provides an insight on how the learning model and suggested measures of Illeris (2007) are used in practice. Showing how this learning model is used in practice might inspire learning, educational practice, policy, practice oriented (scientific) research and might stimulate further the development of theory and innovation of the workplace. Showing a way of instrument developing, next to the way of research. With these research outcomes, we hope that all participants gain insight on workplace learning. Moreover, we hope to stimulate further action, development, change, and the enhancement of educational practice and workplace learning.
De resultaten van dit onderzoek zijn gepubliceerd in het M&O-jaarboek “Spanning in en rond organisaties” onder redactie van Jaap van Muijen (2012). Bent u geïnteresseerd in de onderzoeksresultaten, dan sturen wij u dat graag toe (contact). Kijk ook hier voor meer achtergrondinformatie over de Impact of practical-oriented design-based research on innovation of workplace learning/practical education in nursing.